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  • Artigo de evento
    Possible indirect measurement of diffusion coefficient from migration kinetic essay of food packaging
    (2008-09-10) MANZOLI, J. E.; LEMOS, C.; PANZARINI, L. C. G. A.; FÉLIX, J. S.; MONTEIRO, M.
    Diffusion coefficient is an important quantity that affects any migration process on food or nutritional systems. Special care has to be done to migration of undesirable substances from packaging into foods, if the diffusion is the only process involved in mass transfer. The Fick's equation resolution permits to describe the kinetic of migration from polymer packaging into food or simulant, once it was given the correct contour and initial conditions. Another important quantity is the partition coefficient, which quantifies the relation between the final or equilibrium concentrations in polymer and that in the food or simulant. Here it is proposed a simple procedure, based on numerical resolution of the Fick's equation, where the diffusion coefficient could indirectly be measured, if the kinetic of migration had been measured and the partition coefficient is known.
  • Artigo de evento
    Use of hydrodynamic cavitation as an alternative for biodiesel production
    (2009-08-30) SANTOS, S. L. DOS; FERREIRA, M. S.; Maristhela Passoni de Araújo Marin; Luis Novazzi
    © 2009 by ABCM.Biodiesel is known as an alternative to conventional petrodiesel because of its renewability and better combustion performance, in addition to reducing emissions, harmful to the environment. Biodiesel production consists on the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol and the reaction is affected by the alcohol type, temperature, molar ratio of alcohol to oil and catalyst type and amount. Since this reaction is a heterogeneous one, reagent mixing is also of crucial importance and traditionally the blending is carried out by using mechanical mixers. In this work a different approach is proposed, where the mixing is induced by hydrodynamic cavitation provoked by an orifice plate connected to the suction of a centrifugal pump. Biodiesel production was carried out at 45°C with a 1:8 molar ratio of soybean oil to ethanol. It was observed that the method assisted by hydrodynamic cavitation promotes the enhancement of biodiesel yield in comparison to the conventional method that uses mechanical stirring. In comparative tests carried out from 0 to 40 minutes, the hydrodynamic cavitation always showed conversion rates larger than the mechanical agitation. Although specific energy consumption in biodiesel production is slightly higher for hydrodynamic cavitation when compared to conventional mechanical mixing, it was observed that in the alternative approach the equipment employed is simple and has a low acquisition cost, showing that it has a great potential to be scaled up and used in industrial processes.
  • Artigo de evento
    Multivariable control of a heat exchanger with bypasses
    (2009-07-15) Delatore, F.; DA CRUZ, J. J.; Fabrizio Leonardi; Luis Novazzi
    A myriad of different multivariable control techniques, ranging from the simplest isolated PID controllers to the most sophisticated model predictive controls, are presented in the literature and applied to chemical plants. This work intends to present an intermediate control solution between the simplest and the most complex control design, with a relative simplicity, in combination with a superior performance when compared to traditional PID controllers. The proposed strategy, based on a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), was applied to a heat exchanger with bypasses, which is a typical equipment in industries' processes. Even though the LQR is relatively straightforward to design, with a simple tuning procedure, some simulations' results demonstrated that the proposed approach leaded to a reasonable control performance, i.e., process variables became almost totally decoupled, no offset was observed and the output responses presented an small time constant.
  • Artigo de evento
    Calorimetric measurement of the interface energy of pure and calcium doped magnesium oxide
    (2009-10-29) CASTRO, R.; Ricardo Torres; GOUVEA, D.
    Interface energetics is of key importance in understanding the evolution of nanoparticles during sintering. During this process, two types of interfaces control the driving forces: the surface and the grain boundary. The knowledge of their energies is therefore of major importance to obtain reliable sintered bodies. The objective of this work was to present a quantitative relationship between the grain boundary energy and the surface energy of MgO and Ca-doped MgO nanoparticles to provide data to better understand the sintering behavior of this system, in particular delineating the thermodynamic basis of using Ca as sintering add. Using a novel and convenient calorimetric procedure, the ratio between the grain boundary energy and the surface energy was determined to be 1.1 for pure MgO and 0.7 for Ca-doped MgO. Based on these, the grain boundary energy of pure MgO and Ca-doped MgO were estimated to be 1.2 J.m-2 and 0.4 J.m-2, respectively. The grain boundary energy decrease caused by calcium doping was attributed to its interface segregation and influenced the sintering behavior by changing the equilibrium dihedral angle in addition to diffusion parameters.
  • Artigo de evento
    DMLM III device development for enzymes biochemical reactions in microgravity
    (2011-05-22) LA NEVE, A.; BELLODI, M.; MELO, M. A. A.; FERREIRA, M.; PEREIRA, A. N.; LUCARINI, A. C.
    The goal of this experiment was to investigate the invertase enzyme kinetics in microgravity to better understand the mechanism action inside and outside biological cells. To do this DMLM 111 device was developed, which is responsible for mixing liquids in microgravity. It consists of a mechanical part, with ten sets of reaction systems, and embedded electronics. Each reaction system consists of three chambers, for the enzyme, the substrate and the reaction inhibitor, and two valves to keep the liquids separated. When microgravity signal is triggered, enzyme and substrate are mixed to start the biochemical reaction. After five minutes the reaction is interrupted with the inhibitor. This experiment was embedded on a VSB-30 Brazilian sounding rocket, and payload remained in microgravity for approximately six minutes. Biochemical analyses of the samples are under way, and the results will be compared with the data obtained on earth, under similar conditions.
  • Artigo de evento
    CIM device for enzyme kinetics experiment aboard the International Space Station
    (2011-10-03) LA NEVE, A.; BELLODI, M.; FERREIRA, M.; LUCARINI, A. C.
    The main objective of this experiment is to verify the differences in kinetic parameters of enzymes reaction aboard the ISS. For this experiment the invertase enzyme was selected, as a case study in microgravity. It is expected that significant differences occur in the sucrose hydrolysis by invertase, due to diffusion phenomenon in microgravity. The experiment consists of two series of tests, each one with five different sucrose concentrations, to evaluate the invertase kinetics. The reaction is allowed during a period of time, after which the reactions are interrupted by addition of an enzyme inhibitor. The samples of the enzymes, after reaction, must return to earth for biochemical analysis in laboratory. It is expected that significant differences should occur in the hydrolysis of sucrose by invertase, due the diffusion phenomenon, that suffers alterations in microgravity. To perform this experiment in microgravity on ISS, CIM device was developed, with two sets of 5 chambers each, in a total of 10, to realize the mixture of two liquids and the enzyme. This compact device requires no electric power, and it can easily be operated by an astronaut manually. This device is an important evolution over the previous version, MEK device, which flew on ISS Brazilian "Centenary Mission", in March, 2006. The results were partly satisfactory and indicated an increase in reaction rate values, but a metal contamination of the samples due to the resistor oxidation, interfered in the biochemical reaction: this required confirmation and of the experiment and confrontation of data. This experiment aims at the study of the enzymatic kinetics of invertase, which catalyzes carbohydrates hydrolysis, such as sucrose, producing glucose and fructose. The study of enzymatic kinetics is fundamental for the comprehension of the enzymes action mechanism, in and out of the cells, and this may lead to the design of more efficient enzymatic bioreactors. Therefore, the study of the effects of microgravity on the enzymes action can be helpful to better understand their action mechanism on earth, and then to think of enzymatic processes and microorganisms applications, both on earth and in space. Copyright ©2010 by the International Astonautical Federation. All rights reserved.
  • Artigo de evento
    Influence of feedstock on biodiesel corrosiveness and degradation
    (2014-11-16) Isabella Aquino ; ALVES, T. P. ; SILVA, F. F. R ; AOKI, I. V.; Ricardo Torres
  • Artigo de evento
    Transesterification of sunflower oil produced by solvent extraction
    (2014-11-16) Maristhela Passoni de Araújo Marin ; Luis Novazzi ; DENARI, M. L.
    In this work, the leaching of oil from sunflower seeds using hexane was studied. The solution of oil / hexane was thereafter transesterified, with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the catalyst, in a batch reactor, for 1 hour and with a constant temperature of 45 °C. It is important to point out that the extracted oil was not refined and was directly used on transesterification reactions. The hexane in the oil / hexane solution acted as a cosolvent and made the oil / methanol mixture forms a single-phase. Experimental results obtained in the transesterification reactions showed that the increase of methanol / oil mole ratio on reaction yield is negative, whereas the increase of catalyst concentration on reaction yield is positive. Reaction yields decreased 18.00% on average when the mole ratio methanol / oil was increased. When catalyst concentration was augmented, reaction yields increased 15.19%, on average. These results are statistically meaningful, since the standard deviation was equal to 0.48%. Moreover, an interaction between methanol / oil mole ratio and catalyst concentration on reaction yield was observed.
  • Artigo de evento
    Use of cellular ceramic-supported SrO as a catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel
    (2014-01-27) BASSETTI, F. B. ; Andreia de Araújo Morandim Giannetti ; F. S. Ortega
    One of the most common methods for the production of biodiesel is the transesterification of oils in the presence of methanol and a catalyst. The catalysts may be homogeneous or heterogeneous, with the latter consuming less energy, being reusable, thus more environmentally attractive. Although there are many studies on the use of alkaline earth oxides as heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel, few papers deal with the use of strontium oxide. Additionally, these catalysts have been studied as particles dispersed in the reaction medium. This study investigates the potential use of strontium oxide as a catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel, initially as a particulate material, under various temperatures and catalyst concentrations in the reaction medium. The results showed that the strontium oxide is a potential catalyst, reaching up to 58% conversion. In a second step, a thin film of strontium oxide was deposited on a catalyst support consisting of a cylinder of cellular alumina produced by direct foaming of a suspension, followed by heating at 1500°C for 2 hours. This impregnated foam was used as the core of a plug flow reactor prototype for the synthesis of biodiesel. With this prototype it was possible to achieve up to 90% of conversion of soy oil and methanol into biodiesel, after 3 hours. This result discloses the potential of this new approach for the synthesis of biodiesel.
  • Artigo de evento
    Alternative method for bulk solids time flow function estimation
    (2015-11-08) Rodrigo Condotta ; DE RYCK, A.
  • Artigo de evento
    Influence of the synthetic antioxidants, BHT and TBHQ, on soybean biodiesel corrosiveness and degradation
    (2015-11-08) Isabella Aquino ; CELIBERTO, B. P.; ALVES, T. P. ; AOKI, I. V. ; Ricardo Torres
  • Artigo de evento
    The use of dimethyl carbonate for etherification
    (2015-11-08) Rodrigo Cella ; TABU, A. S. T. Z.
  • Artigo de evento
    435598 The use of dimethyl carbonate for etherification
    (2015-11-08) Rodrigo Cella ; TABU, A. S. T. Z.
  • Artigo de evento
    Methane reforming catalyzed by direct reduced iron
    (2017-05-08) RIBEIRO, T. R.; FERREIRA NETO, J. B.; Joao Guilherme Rocha Poco ; TAKANO, C.; KOIBEINSEN, L. ; RINGDALEN, E.
  • Artigo de evento
    Analysis of the transient behavior of an engine cooling radiator
    (2019-06-23) RODRIGUES, K.; LIRA, L. M.; IENO, J. P. S.; Luis Novazzi ; Cyro Albuquerque
    © ECOS 2019 - Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. All rights reserved.The transient analysis of a radiator may be important in situations of high sudden demands and for use in electric vehicles or in heat recovery systems. This work aims to study the dynamic behavior of a radiator in different operational conditions. A mathematical model to simulate its behavior was proposed and validated with experimental data. An experimental bench was assembled with the radiator inside a wind tunnel. The water flows through a closed circuit containing the radiator, a tank, a pump and heaters. Thermocouples were placed in several points for temperature measurement. The flow of water and air were also measured. Some tests were carried out to verify the transient performance, by starting from a steady state condition and then imposing, through a heater, different heat loads on the system. The model was developed from energy balances for the radiator air, water and aluminum, the tank and the heater. The solution of these equations allows to obtain the variation of the temperature in each one of these components. It was observed that the radiator responds very quickly to the variation of the heating, in a few seconds, probably due to its small mass and large area of heat transfer. Then the temperature of the radiator increases more slowly accompanying the increase of temperature of the whole system until all the volume of water arrives at the steady state, taking about 15 minutes. The outlet temperature of air and water and the aluminum had a very close behavior. The model presented a behavior very close to the experimental results, showing that even an analysis with few control volumes can bring satisfactory results for the simulation of the transient state under different conditions.
  • Artigo de evento
    Main effects observed in the conversion of fructose in HMF.
    (2019-11-10) TACACIMA, J.; DERENZO, S.; Joao Guilherme Rocha Poco