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  • Artigo de evento
    Pit morphology and its microstructure relation in 850°C aged UNS S31803 (SAP 2205) duplex stainless steel
    (2003-07-24) Rodrigo Magnabosco; ALONSO-FALLEIROS, N.
    This work described the relationship between microstructure of UNS S 31803 (SAP 2205) aged at 850°C and pitting morphology after cyclic polarization in chloride aqueous solution. The initial material, solution treated for 30 minutes at 1120°C and water quenched, was aged at 850°C for periods up to 100 hours. Cyclic polarization in 3,5% NaCl aqueous solution was conducted on #600 grounded sample surfaces. After polarization, the samples were sectioned transversal and perpendicular to polarized surface to allow the inner view of pitting corrosion using scanning electron microscope. It was found that sigma phase formation after 850°C aging treatment reduced pitting potential, and pitting corrosion occurred as selective corrosion of chromium and molybdenum impoverished regions, like interfaces between sigma phase and metallic matrix.
  • Artigo
    New approach for applications of machinability and machining strength
    (2009-09-05) COPPINI, N. L.; Júlio Cesar Dutra; DOS SANTOSA, E. C.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the machinability and machining strength concepts under a new viewpoint concerned with both their applications and how to measure then. Despite of the fact that to develop easy to cut steel is a very important task, this work take under consideration entire application of these properties for any kind of materials in terms of how aggressive it can be against the tool material. Design/methodology/approach: A new approach to measure machining strength property is proposed. The reliability of the proposed test was based on experimental data from the literature. The best way to apply machinability index and machining strength index is put forward. Otherwise, at this moment, the authors are doing experimental laboratory research to evaluate the best way to organize appropriate samples to attend different kind products for respective materials makers'. Findings: It was possible to conclude that machinability must be used by means of comparative tests as close as possible to shopping floor conditions. The main application is to select the best steel to be used for a specific cutting process workpart. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation is that the entire new viewpoint presented is very new for the materials makers. The authors must spread the ideas presented here to check the actual materials makers' resistance or acceptance of their applications. Originality/value: The proposed test is very simple and more reliable than that one already published. On the other hand, machining strength is a material intrinsic property. For this reason, it is best employed during easy to cut materials development and measured by a Coppini Index (CI) based on standard tests. As a material intrinsic property it is not related to a standard material. Machinability is supposed to be appropriated for process optimization and not for materials development or characterization. © Copyright by International OCSCO World Press. All rights reserved. 2009.
  • Artigo
    Reusing Surlyn® Ionomer Scraps in LDPE Blends: Mechanical and Thermal Properties
    (2023-01-05) BARBOSA, M. F.; Adriana Martinelli Catelli Souza
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of reusing industrial scraps of Surlyn® ionomer by obtaining blends with Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Blends of LDPE and Surlyn® scraps were obtained by extrusion with compositions ranging from 25 to 75 wt% of the ionomer. Their melt flow index (MFI), morphology (SEM), mechanical (tensile, flexural, impact tests) and thermal properties (DSC, TGA, HDT tests) were analyzed. The morphology of the blends presented two phases, indicating the immiscibility of phases. Surlyn® incorporation promoted a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of LDPE and a slight increase in the thermal decomposition temperature. In addition, Surlyn® decreased the decomposition rate of LDPE. However, the decrease in the degree of crystallinity did not affect the mechanical properties of the blends. Incorporating ionomer in LDPE promoted an increase in tensile and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus and strain at break. Impact strength decreased with increasing ionomer concentration.
  • Artigo
    Assessment of the Von Mises Stresses and Stress Triaxiality in Notches Using Modified Tensile Specimens
    (2023-05-26) PEREIRA, L. DOS S.; Gustavo Donato; MATTAR NETO, M.
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.Complete understanding of the local stress triaxiality and stress concentration is essential to ensuring structural safety of several structures. A combination of mechanical tests with numerical simulations can be used to obtain this information. One way to study stress triaxiality is by modifying the standard tensile test geometry (ASTM E8) with a notch. Based on previous results from the literature, five notches were chosen: 10, 5, 3, 2, and 1 mm. These geometries were tested, and the results were numerically reproduced using the Abaqus/Explicit 2020 software. The models used were a non-linear model with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman damage model to reproduce the failure. The numerical analyses allowed the assessment of the von Mises stress and stress triaxiality near the notch to compare with the standard smooth specimen. Two instants were considered as crack propagation onset; the instant of the maximum von Mises stress in the element at the center of the specimen, where the failure process begins; and the moment of maximum stress in the true stress x true strain curve. For the von Mises stress analysis, the difference between the curves was small. The stress triaxiality is a better variable to visualize the influences of the notch. When the strain is equal to a 0.07 (instant of the maximum force for the standard specimens), for the smaller notches (1 and 2 mm), there is a region where the effective plastic strain is zero. Consequently, the stress triaxiality is larger in this region than in the center. For the crack propagation onset instant, the plastic strain occurs along the whole transversal section. In this instant, the maximum value of stress triaxiality occurs in the center for all specimens. These results demonstrate that the stress triaxiality changes as the strain increases, i.e., varies with time.
  • Artigo
    Polyamide 12 Filled with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Waste: Processing, Compatibilization, and Properties
    (2023-06-05) MORAES, W. G. B.; BONSE, B. C
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is primarily used as a coating and insulator for electrical wires and cables. The cross-links render recycling through remelting unfeasible, and XLPE waste is usually incinerated or sent to landfills. Previous investigations showed that XLPE increased the impact strength of commodity thermoplastics. Hence, incorporating XLPE in polyamide 12, an engineering thermoplastic, was studied using maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA). Formulations were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder containing 20 wt% XLPE with 0, 2, 4, and 8 wt% compatibilizer. Test specimens were injection-molded. DSC results showed that adding XLPE and compatibilizer reduced PA12 crystallinity but affected little melt and crystallization temperatures. Morphological analyses revealed poor adhesion between polyamide 12 and XLPE, which improved when adding PE-g-MA. The lack of adhesion when XLPE is added strongly reduces the mechanical properties, except for impact strength, which increased by ca.120% compared to the formulation without XLPE; while using 4 wt% compatibilizer this increase was ca. 140%. When adding PE-g-MA as a compatibilizer, some recovery was achieved in tensile strength and strain at break, and impact strength increased furthermore. Flexure and HDT tests showed a decrease in stiffness after adding XLPE. Stiffness was further reduced in compositions containing compatibilizer.
  • Artigo de evento
    Processing of Metal Matrix AA2124 Aluminium Alloy Composites Reinforced By Alumina And Silicon Carbide By Powder Metallurgy Techniques
    © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.This work aims the processing of metal matrix AA2124 aluminium alloy composites reinforced by alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC). The composites were manufactured by powder metallurgy techniques, in a grinding using a ball mill spex type (high energy) at a ratio of balls/ powders of 10:1 and grinding time of 30 and 60 minutes using stearic acid (C18H36O2) as lubricant to each one of the samples. The fractions used in both reinforcements were 5, 10 and 15% in mass. The microstructural characterizations of AA2124 alloy powders with the reinforcements of alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) powders were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the particles sizes and distribuition of the particle sizes in powders produced were obtained by laser diffraction, whereas the sintered characterizations were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical characterization of the sintered tests was achieved by Vickers hardness (HV). The composites were uniaxially cold compacted (room temperature), at a pressure of 7.0 t/cm², thus forming small pellets that were sintered (at a temperature of 500 °C) in a vacuum furnace at IPEN (SP). There was observed the influence of the respective bulk fractions of reinforcement particles used in mechanical characteristics presented in the resulting composites.
  • Artigo de evento
    Preparation of Molybdenum High Speed Tool Steels with Addition of Niobium Carbide by Powder Metallurgy Techniques
    © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.High speed steels processed by Powder Metallurgy (PM) techniques present better mechanical properties when compared with similar steels obtained by the conventional process of cast to ingot and hot working. PM techniques produce improved microstructures with smaller and better distribution of carbides. Liquid phase sintering high speed steel seems to be a cheaper processing route in the manufacturing of tool steels if compared to the well-known and expansive hot isostatic pressing high speed steels. The introduction of niobium as alloying element began with the object of replacing elements like vanadium (V) and tungsten (W). Phase liquid sintering consists in a manufacturing technique to process high speed steels by powder metallurgy. The aim of this work of research is to process and obtain AISI M2 and M3:2 with and without the addition of niobium carbide by high energy milling, cold uniaxial compaction and vacuum sintering in the presence of a liquid phase. The powders of the AISI M2 and M3:2 were processed by high energy milling adding a small quantity of niobium carbide (6% in mass), then the powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) plus energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) in order to evaluate the milling process. The powders of the AISI M2 and M3:2 with the addition of niobium carbide (NbC) were uniaxially cold compacted and then submitted to vacuum sintering. The sintered samples had their microstructure, porosity and carbide distribution observed and evaluated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the mechanical property of hardness was investigated by means of Vickers hardness tests. At least five samples of each steel were investigated.
  • Artigo
    Improvements on the characterization of heterogeneities in grain size by network analysis
    (2023-01-05) MOREIRA, V. C.; TSCHIPTSCHIN, A. P.; Júlio Cesar Dutra
    © 2022Some microstructural heterogeneities, like those observed during abnormal grain growth or right after recrystallization of metals and alloys, may be challenging to evaluate in metric or topological terms, as the variations in both grain size and number of sides distributions are subtle. This work proposes a new methodology for microstructural heterogeneities characterization based on network analysis. The method involves coupling the eigenvector centrality and three newly conceived microstructural network centralities. These microstructural centralities take advantage of existing topological constraints during normal grain growth to overcome the dependency of traditional network centralities on the number of grains in micrographs. The proposed methodology was successfully tested for the characterization of abnormal grain growth and a pre-self-similar state during normal grain growth. This procedure has some advantages over grain size distribution and topological evaluations, and it can be automated for both industrial and research applications, paving the way for the characterization of other heterogeneities in materials microstructures.
  • Artigo
    Effect of injection molding conditions on the properties of polyamide 6/calcium carbonate nanocomposite
    (2023-05-12) AUGUSTO, T. A.; CARASTAN, D. J.; SANTOS, A. N. B.; BONSE, B. C.
    © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC.The application range of polyamide 6 in lightweight part applications can be significantly increased by using appropriate processing parameters and by incorporating additives. Therefore, specimens were manufactured at varying mold temperatures and injection velocities to study the effect of injection molding parameters on the properties of polyamide 6 and its nanocomposite with nano-calcium carbonate. Mechanical properties, degree of crystallinity, density, heat deflection temperature, and melt flow index were measured to assess the effect of injection molding conditions on material properties. Mold temperature was the process factor that most affected polyamide 6 and polyamide 6/nano-calcium carbonate properties. Increasing this parameter increased density, impact strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and heat deflection temperature. The nanocomposite's degree of crystallinity, tensile modulus, and melt flow index also increased. High injection velocity reduced only the impact strength of the nanocomposite. The findings indicate that by modifying injection parameters, it is possible to improve mechanical properties and processing efficiency of polyamide 6 and its nanocomposites, bringing them closer to their maximum potential. Incorporating the nanofiller increased almost all properties except for impact strength and elongation at break. Nano-calcium carbonate provided considerable advantages to polyamide 6 mechanical performance and processability while increasing sample weight by only 1.5%.
  • Artigo
    Electrochemical characterization of 13Cr low-carbon martensitic stainless steel - Corrosion study with a mini-cell setup
    (2022-10-27) CALDERON- HERNANDEZ, J. W.; GONZALEZ-RAMIREZ, M. F.; SEPULVEDA-CASTANO, J. M.; SANTOS-MARTINEZ, J. D.; QUISPE-AVILES, J. M.; Rodrigo Magnabosco; Goldenstein H.
    © 2022 The Authors.13Cr low-carbon martensitic stainless steels also known as supermartensitic stainless steels (SMSS) have superior properties than conventional martensitic stainless steels. The SMSS have better weldability and corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, corrosion resistance depends on phases transformations which are induced generally by heat treatments. In this work, the electrochemical properties of a SMSS were evaluated as a function of the tempering temperature (400 °C-700 °C). The susceptibility to intergranular corrosion was determined throught the degree of sensitization (DOS) using the Double Loop - Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation technique (DL-EPR) in a conventional three electrodes corrosion cell. On the other hand, the pitting susceptibility was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization using a homemade corrosion mini-cell (based on a sessile electrolyte droplet), thus avoiding crevice problems typically seen with conventional arrangements. Imaging the microstructure with SEM, XRD analysis and thermodynamic and kinetic simulations were performed to understand the microstructural transformations and their relationship with corrosion resistance. The most severe sensitization occurs at the temperature where reversed austenite transformation is highest.
  • Artigo
    Effect of amine-reactive elastomer on the properties of poly(lactic acid) films obtained by solvent-cast 3D printing
    (2022-01-05) OLIVEIRA, L. R. D.; NONATO, R. C.; Baltus Cornelius Bonse; MORALES, A. R.
    © 2022 Society of Plastics Engineers.Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (ATBN) elastomer were prepared by solution with ATBN contents of 8–20 wt%. Films were molded by liquid deposition modeling 3D printing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the terminal carboxylic groups of the PLA chains reacted with the terminal amino groups of ATBN. Water was the byproduct of this reaction, causing PLA hydrolysis and accelerating the reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that components interaction caused a loss of PLA thermal stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the blends revealed a porous morphology and no phase separation. There was change in the elongation when compared with neat PLA. Although the addition of a telechelic elastomer could improve PLA toughness, any benefits arising from such addition seem to be neutralized by PLA chain scission due to hydrolysis and porosity, resulting from the condensation reaction.
  • Artigo
    Effect of aging heat treatment H950 and H1000 on mechanical and pitting corrosion properties of uns s46500 stainless steel
    (2018-01-05) BERALDO, C. H.; CALDERON-HERNANDEZ, J. W.; Rodrigo Magnabosco; ALONSO-FALLEIROS, N.
    © 2018 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.The effect of aging temperature on mechanical and pitting corrosion properties of UNS S46500 was investigated. Tensile and Hardness tests were carried out and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction; Thermo-Calc simulations helped in the phase identification. Pitting corrosion properties were investigated in 0.6M NaCl electrolyte with sulfate additions by Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP). Hardness, tensile and yield strength of the UNS S46500 steel after lower aging temperature, 510ºC (H950), are higher than the ones found in the 538ºC (H1000) aged steel.This result is explained by microstructure, X-ray diffraction and Thermo-Calc analysis, which indicated the presence of austenite, chi phase and probably Ni3Ti precipitates finely and uniform distributed throughout the martensite matrix. Pitting corrosion resistance is equivalent in both aging temperatures. The sulfate inhibitor effect on UNS S46500 steel was enhanced for 538ºC condition when the electrolyte reaches 1Cl-:1SO4 2- ratio, which is explained by Ni sulfate adsorption and the amount of interfaces in the microstructure resulting in smaller amount of adsorption sites, such as coarsened Ni3Ti precipitates, smaller fraction of chi phase and recovery of dislocations in martensite structure.
  • Artigo
    Nanocomposites of PLA/ZnO nanofibers for medical applications: Antimicrobial effect, thermal, and mechanical behavior under cyclic stress
    (2022-01-18) NONATO, R.C.; MEI, L.H.I.; Baltus Cornelius Bonse; LEAL, C.V.; LEVY, C.E.; OLIVEIRA, F.A.; DELARMELINA, C.; DUARTE, M.C.T.; MORALES, A.R.
    The application of biodegradable and biocompatible polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in the medical field has been widely studied. In this study, films of neat PLA and PLA containing 1 wt% ZnO nanofibers obtained by electrospinning (PLA/ZnO) were successfully molded by solvent-cast three-dimensional (3D) printing. Mechanical behavior was assessed by conventional dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and by adapting the equipment conditions to simulate a mechanical fatigue test at human body temperature—cyclic stress in isotherm at 36.5°C. DMA results showed that for temperatures above 30°C, the storage module of PLA/ZnO was higher when compared to neat PLA, and in the fatigue test, PLA/ZnO withstood more than 3600 cycles while neat PLA failed after an average of 1768 cycles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests revealed that cyclic stress did not cause changes in the degree of crystallinity of the PLA. The microdilution and plating methods were applied to bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli) and to yeast (Candida albicans) and revealed the antimicrobial effect of ZnO nanofibers and the PLA/ZnO composite. The antimicrobial activity and fatigue resistance of PLA/ZnO nanocomposites indicate that the material has potential for application in bone implants.
  • Artigo
    PA6/PA66/talc composite: Effect of reprocessing on the structure and properties
    (2022-04-05) DOMINGO, G. D.; SOUZA, A. M. C.
    In this study the effect of repeated injection molding cycles on the structure and properties of polyamide 6/polyamide 66/talc (PA6/PA66/talc - 35/35/30) composite was investigated for samples subjected to one, four, and seven processing cycles. Their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), structure (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), melt viscosity (melt flow index [MFI]), mechanical (tensile, flexural, impact, and fatigue tests), and thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis tests) were analyzed. The increase in MFI value and the decrease in the maximum decomposition temperature of PA6, observed by TG analysis, for samples subjected to seven processing cycles, indicated a possible reduction in molar mass of the PA6/PA66 matrix. These samples presented a decrease in degree of crystallinity of PA6 and PA66, which was more pronounced for PA6. The reprocessing of the composite did not present changes in the mechanical properties up to the fourth processing cycle, except for fatigue life which presented a 59% reduction. Samples subjected to seven processing cycles presented a decrease in tensile and flexural strength as well as in tensile and flexural modulus. Charpy impact strength of the samples did not significantly change upon reprocessing. The micrographs of the fatigue fractured surfaces indicated that the weak talc-matrix interaction and talc-matrix debonding became more evident with increasing processing cycles.
  • Artigo
    Fracture toughness of the eutectic alloy Al3Nb-Nb2Al
    (2003-08-05) TRIVENO RIOS, C.; FERRANDINI, P.; CARAM, R.
    Presenting high fracture toughness is a decisive condition to any structural material, and when considering brittle alloys, the Vickers indentation method to determine fracture toughness is an interesting alternative. Like many other intermetallics, the Al3Nb-Nb2Al eutectic alloy shows high strength at high temperatures and low fracture toughness at room temperature. Al3Nb-Nb2Al samples, both in the as-solidified condition and in the directionally solidified condition, had their hardness and fracture toughness determined by the Vickers indentation method. Lower values of hardness were found when higher loads were used, and fracture toughness was found to be about 2.0 MPa m1/2. The as-solidified condition is harder and less tough, and when fracture occurs, cracks always develop by cleavage. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Artigo de evento
    International division of labour in product development activities: Towards a selective decentralisation?
    (2004-01-05) DIAS, A. V. C.; SALERNO, M. S.
    This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the international division of labour among headquarters and subsidiaries located in emerging markets, concerning product development (PD) activities. We argue that market proximity and technological sourcing, often claimed as reasons for decentralising PD activities, are not sufficient to explain some cases of integration of subsidiaries located in emerging markets in their headquarters' PD structures. We then propose that this integration may arise in order to reduce development time and costs; also, the integration of subsidiaries depends on their relationship with headquarters and on the role played by host and home governments. Finally, we present some proposals on how the division of labour occurs, concerning the development of platform and derivatives and the stages on the PD process. These propositions are based on case studies conducted in four major car assemblers in the last four years, examining their headquarters as well as their Brazilian subsidiaries.
  • Artigo
    Influence of growth rate on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of a NiAl-Mo eutectic alloy
    (2004-11-03) FERRANDINI, P.; BATISTA, W. W.; CARAM, R.
    The effect of the growth condition on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the NiAl-Mo eutectic alloy was investigated. Samples of the eutectic alloy were prepared using an arc furnace under argon atmosphere and then directionally solidified. The samples directionally solidified showed regular and aligned eutectic microstructure. Compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1173K. Vickers hardness was determined at several temperatures, from room temperature to 1150K. Mechanical properties of NiAl were also determined. Results showed that when the growth rate is gradually increased from 8 to 50mm/h the aligned microstructure presents higher fibre density, which leads to higher strength level at room temperature, while further increase in the growth rate causes the microstructure the loose regularity. NiAl presents a well defined mechanical behaviour transition, while the NiAl-Mo eutectic alloy softens almost linearly. The highest yield strength value of NiAl-Mo was found to be about 1200 and 300MPa at room temperature and 1173K, respectively. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Artigo de evento
    Directional solidification, microstructure and properties of the Al3Nb-Nb2Al eutectic
    (2005-02-15) RIOS, C. T.; MILENKOVIC, S.; FERRANDINI, P. L.; CARAM, R.
    The Al-Nb system exhibits a eutectic transformation at 1595.2°C, which results in Al3Nb (D022) and Nb2Al (D8b) phases. This paper is concerned with the processing of this eutectic by directional solidification. Alloys were prepared by arc melting and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. The resulting samples were utilized to evaluate the solidification microstructure and morphology regarding the growth conditions. Eutectic microstructures obtained were regular with lamellar morphology. Variations of the growth rate showed that an increase in this parameter causes a decrease in the lamellar spacing. With further increase in the growth rate, eutectic cells were observed as a result of constitutional undercooling. Oxidation tests of eutectic microstructures showed that this alloy suffers severe microstructure instability, with growth kinetics of the oxide scale of linear type. This indicates that the Al in the Nb-Al eutectic alloy is insufficient to form protective oxide films, such as, α-Al2O3. Finally, the heat treatment in argon atmosphere showed that the eutectic alloy presents a high degree of microstructure stability at 1200°C. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Artigo de evento
    Growth and characterization of the NiAl-NiAlNb eutectic structure
    (2005-02-15) FERRANDINI, P. L.; ARAÚJO, F. L. G. U.; BATISTA, W. W.; CARAM, R.
    Despite presenting potential as high-temperature structural material, the NiAl intermetallic compound cannot be easily employed due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor creep strength. A solution for such a problem is combining such a compound with other phase using a eutectic transformation, as in the case of the NiAl-NiAlNb eutectic structure. In this study, several samples containing Ni, Al and Nb were arc melted in order to evaluate the eutectic composition of this transformation, as well as the temperature at which it occurs. The resulting phases were the B2 NiAl and the Laves phase NiAlNb. It was found that the eutectic alloy occurs close to 16.0 at% Nb and the eutectic transformation temperature is 1487 °C. The amount of NiAl phase clearly decreases when the Nb content is raised. Thus, hypoeutectic alloys present NiAl dendrites with NiAlNb precipitated at the grain boundaries while hypereutectic alloys present primary dendrites of NiAlNb. The eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at growth rates varying from 5.0 to 50.0 mm/h. As expected, the lamellar spacing was found to decrease as the growth rate was increased. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Artigo
    Growth and microstructure evolution of the Nb2Al-Al 3Nb eutectic in situ composite
    (2005-03-05) RIOS, C. T.; FERRANDINI, P. L.; MILENKOVIC, V.; CARAM, R.
    In situ composite materials obtained by directional growth of eutectic alloys usually show improved properties, that make them potential candidates for high temperature applications. The eutectic alloy found in the Al-Nb system is composed of the two intermetallic phases Al3Nb (D022) and Nb2Al (D8b). This paper describes the directional solidification of an Al-Nb eutectic alloy using a Bridgman type facility at growth rates varying from 1.0 to 2.9 cm/h. Longitudinal and transverse sections of grown samples were characterized regarding the solidification microstructure by using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Despite both phases being intermetallic compounds, the eutectic microstructure obtained was very regular. The results obtained were discussed regarding the effect of the growth rate on the microstructure, lamellar-rod transition and variation of phase volume fraction. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.