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  • Artigo de evento
    Pit morphology and its microstructure relation in 850°C aged UNS S31803 (SAP 2205) duplex stainless steel
    (2003-07-24) Rodrigo Magnabosco ; ALONSO-FALLEIROS, N.
    This work described the relationship between microstructure of UNS S 31803 (SAP 2205) aged at 850°C and pitting morphology after cyclic polarization in chloride aqueous solution. The initial material, solution treated for 30 minutes at 1120°C and water quenched, was aged at 850°C for periods up to 100 hours. Cyclic polarization in 3,5% NaCl aqueous solution was conducted on #600 grounded sample surfaces. After polarization, the samples were sectioned transversal and perpendicular to polarized surface to allow the inner view of pitting corrosion using scanning electron microscope. It was found that sigma phase formation after 850°C aging treatment reduced pitting potential, and pitting corrosion occurred as selective corrosion of chromium and molybdenum impoverished regions, like interfaces between sigma phase and metallic matrix.
  • Artigo
    Reusing Surlyn® Ionomer Scraps in LDPE Blends: Mechanical and Thermal Properties
    (2023-01-05) BARBOSA, M. F.; Adriana Martinelli Catelli Souza
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of reusing industrial scraps of Surlyn® ionomer by obtaining blends with Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Blends of LDPE and Surlyn® scraps were obtained by extrusion with compositions ranging from 25 to 75 wt% of the ionomer. Their melt flow index (MFI), morphology (SEM), mechanical (tensile, flexural, impact tests) and thermal properties (DSC, TGA, HDT tests) were analyzed. The morphology of the blends presented two phases, indicating the immiscibility of phases. Surlyn® incorporation promoted a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of LDPE and a slight increase in the thermal decomposition temperature. In addition, Surlyn® decreased the decomposition rate of LDPE. However, the decrease in the degree of crystallinity did not affect the mechanical properties of the blends. Incorporating ionomer in LDPE promoted an increase in tensile and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus and strain at break. Impact strength decreased with increasing ionomer concentration.
  • Artigo
    Assessment of the Von Mises Stresses and Stress Triaxiality in Notches Using Modified Tensile Specimens
    (2023-05-26) PEREIRA, L. DOS S.; Gustavo Donato; MATTAR NETO, M.
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.Complete understanding of the local stress triaxiality and stress concentration is essential to ensuring structural safety of several structures. A combination of mechanical tests with numerical simulations can be used to obtain this information. One way to study stress triaxiality is by modifying the standard tensile test geometry (ASTM E8) with a notch. Based on previous results from the literature, five notches were chosen: 10, 5, 3, 2, and 1 mm. These geometries were tested, and the results were numerically reproduced using the Abaqus/Explicit 2020 software. The models used were a non-linear model with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman damage model to reproduce the failure. The numerical analyses allowed the assessment of the von Mises stress and stress triaxiality near the notch to compare with the standard smooth specimen. Two instants were considered as crack propagation onset; the instant of the maximum von Mises stress in the element at the center of the specimen, where the failure process begins; and the moment of maximum stress in the true stress x true strain curve. For the von Mises stress analysis, the difference between the curves was small. The stress triaxiality is a better variable to visualize the influences of the notch. When the strain is equal to a 0.07 (instant of the maximum force for the standard specimens), for the smaller notches (1 and 2 mm), there is a region where the effective plastic strain is zero. Consequently, the stress triaxiality is larger in this region than in the center. For the crack propagation onset instant, the plastic strain occurs along the whole transversal section. In this instant, the maximum value of stress triaxiality occurs in the center for all specimens. These results demonstrate that the stress triaxiality changes as the strain increases, i.e., varies with time.
  • Artigo
    Polyamide 12 Filled with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Waste: Processing, Compatibilization, and Properties
    (2023-06-05) MORAES, W. G. B.; BONSE, B. C
    © 2023 Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. All rights reserved.Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is primarily used as a coating and insulator for electrical wires and cables. The cross-links render recycling through remelting unfeasible, and XLPE waste is usually incinerated or sent to landfills. Previous investigations showed that XLPE increased the impact strength of commodity thermoplastics. Hence, incorporating XLPE in polyamide 12, an engineering thermoplastic, was studied using maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA). Formulations were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder containing 20 wt% XLPE with 0, 2, 4, and 8 wt% compatibilizer. Test specimens were injection-molded. DSC results showed that adding XLPE and compatibilizer reduced PA12 crystallinity but affected little melt and crystallization temperatures. Morphological analyses revealed poor adhesion between polyamide 12 and XLPE, which improved when adding PE-g-MA. The lack of adhesion when XLPE is added strongly reduces the mechanical properties, except for impact strength, which increased by ca.120% compared to the formulation without XLPE; while using 4 wt% compatibilizer this increase was ca. 140%. When adding PE-g-MA as a compatibilizer, some recovery was achieved in tensile strength and strain at break, and impact strength increased furthermore. Flexure and HDT tests showed a decrease in stiffness after adding XLPE. Stiffness was further reduced in compositions containing compatibilizer.
  • Artigo de evento
    Processing of Metal Matrix AA2124 Aluminium Alloy Composites Reinforced By Alumina And Silicon Carbide By Powder Metallurgy Techniques
    © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.This work aims the processing of metal matrix AA2124 aluminium alloy composites reinforced by alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC). The composites were manufactured by powder metallurgy techniques, in a grinding using a ball mill spex type (high energy) at a ratio of balls/ powders of 10:1 and grinding time of 30 and 60 minutes using stearic acid (C18H36O2) as lubricant to each one of the samples. The fractions used in both reinforcements were 5, 10 and 15% in mass. The microstructural characterizations of AA2124 alloy powders with the reinforcements of alumina (Al2O3) and silicon carbide (SiC) powders were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the particles sizes and distribuition of the particle sizes in powders produced were obtained by laser diffraction, whereas the sintered characterizations were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical characterization of the sintered tests was achieved by Vickers hardness (HV). The composites were uniaxially cold compacted (room temperature), at a pressure of 7.0 t/cm², thus forming small pellets that were sintered (at a temperature of 500 °C) in a vacuum furnace at IPEN (SP). There was observed the influence of the respective bulk fractions of reinforcement particles used in mechanical characteristics presented in the resulting composites.