Mutually connected phase-locked loop networks: Dynamical models and design parameters

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Orsatti F. M.
Carareto R.
Piqueira J. R. C.
IET Circuits, Devices and Systems
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ORSATTI, F. M; CARARETO, R.; PIQUEIRA, J. R. C. Mutually connected phase-locked loop networks: Dynamical models and design parameters. IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, v. 2, n. 6, p. 495-508, 2008.
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Distribution of timing signals is an essential factor for the development of digital systems for telecommunication networks, integrated circuits and manufacturing automation. Originally, this distribution was implemented by using the master-slave architecture with a precise master clock generator sending signals to phase-locked loops (PLL) working as slave oscillators. Nowadays, wireless networks with dynamical connectivity and the increase in size and operation frequency of the integrated circuits suggest that the distribution of clock signals could be more efficient if mutually connected architectures were used. Here, mutually connected PLL networks are studied and conditions for synchronous states existence are analytically derived, depending on individual node parameters and network connectivity, considering that the nodes are nonlinear oscillators with nonlinear coupling conditions. An expression for the network synchronisation frequency is obtained. The lock-in range and the transmission error bounds are analysed providing hints to the design of this kind of clock distribution system. © 2008 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.